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Equilibrium is certainly one of the most interesting topics for a chemist! However, it seems that to study it is neither easy (nor enjoyable) for our students. This is probably due to the inherent difficulty in handling a system

In the Physical Chemistry textbook, Chemical kinetics follow (Chapters 9 and 10) the equilibrium (Chapter 4), however I believe that they can give some useful insight to understanding

Given a reversible reaction, as the direct route (Reactants → Products) proceeds [R] decreases and [P] increases. Consequently, velocity (R→P) decreases and v (P→R) increases. At a certain state, the two velocities will become equal: that is, the same quantity of reactants which are consumed by the direct reaction is gained, at the same time, by the inverse reaction.

From a certain point of view, we can imagine this process like two cities full of cars, a certain number of which are moving from one to the other. If the number of cars leaving City 1 is equal to the number of cars leaving City 2, at any moment we will count so many cars in each city. The amount of cars in City 1 is not necessarily equal to the amount of cars in City 2; simply, their number in each city is the same, at any time.

The same can be said about reactions (the animation at Page 4-28, see screen grab above, is inspiring in this context)! Do not believe equilibrium to mean [R] = [P], but rest assured that,

So, what can the main problem for the student trying to understand chemical equilibrium be? Probably, the difference between chemical and

Does it sound so difficult? I hope not, otherwise… well, you need to find

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