The wave-particle duality concept is at the heart of the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here I want to show that the 2D spin gives a clear visualization that the wave-particle question comes down to how we look at spins. That is, the wave or particle nature depends upon how we […]
Which is harder, chemistry of physics? It is generally accepted that physics is harder because of the math. In fact I am pretty sure that many students opt for chemistry over physics because of the harder math in physics; and life sciences over chemistry for the same reason. Ok, it might […]
At McGill like many universities, in large class rooms there is the possibility of lecture recording. I have done this for a number of years teaching my 150 or so Physical Chemistry life science students. Of course there are pros and cons of recording, as noted in the blog by Zimmerman Although the […]
The challenge of teaching thermodynamics to physical chemistry life science students is to have them understand the relationships between the macroscopic properties involving heat, work, energy and entropy. After dispelling the myth that energy is stored in chemical bonds; after introducing the concept of temperature, and contrasting it to heat capacity; and […]
That 2D spin carries polarization along two axes and each axis contributes √2 correlation to the CHSH form of BI. Hence this spin, I will show, accounts for all the correlation, 2√2, that violates BI. This definitely goes contrary to Bell’s theorem, and as a result, non-locality is history.
In the treatment here it is believed that before entering the field, the spin is a free particle and displays the √2 states. It is this spin that starts off in the superposed states of the two orthogonal axes, that depend upon the LHV, |±,r=q,f>n1=±1. Note here there are four pure states: two associated with n1=+1 and two with n1=-1, which cannot be simultaneously measured. We measure either n1=+1 states or n1=-1, but not both simultaneously. Half are averaged away when measured.
Space is now no longer isotropic in the presence of a measuring probe, and so the √2 spin cannot form, nor can the mirror states. Since the spin is oriented some way, one axis is going to be closer to the applied field than the other. That one lines up while the other axis spins in the plane perpendicular to the applied field,
When I was a graduate student, and studying quantum mechanics, I came across a statement by Heisenberg which impressed me. We have no trouble visualizing the macroscopic world. It is our common environment and when someone throws a ball to you, you need no Newtonian mechanics to catch it. If […]
I have said that the √2 spin only exists when space is isotropic. However when interacting, say with other particles, although the √2 magnetic moment is destroyed, none-the-less the 2D structure remains and this actually removes entanglement from quantum theory!!
The new algebra has two time variables and two spatial variables. The spatial variables give the 2D Dirac equation and finds the new spin operators as Lorentz Invariants. Besides the usual linear time, the new time is quite different, being a rotational or phase time. Since spin now has structure, it can precess relative to spins in different inertial frames. Hence it plays the same role for angular momentum that linear time plays for linear momentum.
The book called The Black Swan by Nassim Nicholas Taleb finds many events are unpredictable and occur suddenly, and therefore have a large impact on our lives and thinking. All swans in Europe were white, leading to the paradigm that all swans are white. However the discovery of one black swan in Australia, changes all […]
One therefore has a choice. Accept usual spin that leads to entangled states and a non-local and indeterministic foundation of Nature. Alternately, you can choose the 2D structured spin which gives both a local and realistic view of Nature. Experimentally, the two cannot be distinguished and so the treatment here is not inconsistent with any experimental results.