Since there is no experimental way to confirm that two axes exist, rather than one, the choice between local realism and non-local indeterminism is subjective. Since non-locality is the basis of “quantum weirdness”, Occam’s razor takes the side of locality.
....rather than showing the consistency of the 2D spin with the CHSH equation, we show the CHSH equation predicts the hidden spin. That is starting with the CHSH form of Bell’s Inequalities, a vector of length √2 is found that maximizes the CHSH equation: the 2D spin is hidden inside the CHSH equation.
I have been saying in my blogs that if spin has two axes of quantization, then all the quantum weirdness dissolves and the EPR paradox is reconciled. This is not some new change or addition to quantum mechanics, and there is nothing classical about it. The only deviation from the usual application of quantum mechanics is that a single spin is isolated and there is no measuring probe. That is, space is isotropic. So the only conceptual change I am making is the following:
Quantum mechanics is a theory of measurement, but not of Nature, and can be extended to states that exist beyond our ability to measure.
In both cases to detect a spin a probe must be used. The picture that emerges of spin is the well-known point particle having a single axis of quantization, defined by the orientation of the probe field. What happens when the probe is removed?
Intuition tells us that if we improve detection efficiency and build better experiments the number of detected events will increase until, at 100% efficiency, Fair Sampling would be verified because all events would be recorded. This fails, however, to take into account the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Fair Sampling is always valid for classical events but not always valid for quantum events.
One day I am sure that physics will view Nature as real. Throughout history initial ideas of non-local effects, also called “action-at-a-distance”, have been repudiated and replaced with something more physically reasonable. The most well-known examples are the early attempts to understand gravity and electromagnetism. So it will be with non-locality between entangled particles.
This complementary nature of states with non-commuting operators, (σX, σY ,σZ), is the basis for the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (CI). It states, basically, that if the Z states exist then the X do not, and vice versa. I would rather conclude that it is impossible to determine experimentally if spin has more than one axis of quantization.
This example nicely shows several things about quantum mechanics. First quantum mechanics is a statistical theory of measurement. You only get the SG results after many spins have been filtered. Second, Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations tell us that you cannot devise an experiment that will measure both the Z and X polarization simultaneously. You can do it for one, but not the other, and vice versa.
The lectures will be recorded at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras which is part of the NPTEL program. A major goal of NPTEL is to raise awareness and improve scientific and technological education throughout India by use of multimedia. I will be giving a series of lectures on basic spin theory for chemistry and physics undergraduate students who have a basis in quantum mechanics; know of spin and its importance; and want to go deeper.
I believe it is long overdue to do away with hard copy text books at the freshman level altogether, along with their high cost and adopt ebooks.
Think of the advantages: no paper, nothing to ship, can be updated so users always have the latest edition, integrated into the internet, easy to copy protect, and can be sold for a fraction of the price of hard copy. No resale market.
httpvh://youtu.be/wFe2zu2116I After rolling 2, 3, 4, 10 and Avogadro’s dice, as seen in the entries below, it becomes clear that the most random states (most number of ways of rolling a number) always dominate while those with fewer arrangements occur less frequently: 1 Entropy: Randomness by rolling two dice 2 […]